Adrenal glands that produce too much hormones are described as overactive. Symptoms and treatment depend on which hormones are being overproduced, including the following:
Androgenic steroids (androgen hormones). Overproduction of androgenic steroids, such as testosterone, can lead to exaggerated male characteristics in both men and women. These signs include excess hair on the face and body, baldness, acne, deeper voice, and increased muscle mass. If a female fetus is exposed to high levels of androgens early in pregnancy, her genital tissues may develop abnormally. Young boys who have high levels of androgen levels may grow faster, but bones may also mature faster and stop growing too soon, resulting in short adult height.
Corticosteroids. Overproduction of corticosteroids can lead to Cushing's syndrome (see below).
Aldosterone. Overproduction of aldosterone can lead to high blood pressure and to symptoms associated with low levels of potassium (for example, weakness, muscle aches, spasms, and, sometimes, paralysis).
The symptoms of overactive adrenal glands may look like other problems or medical conditions. Always consult your child's health care provider for a diagnosis.
In addition to a complete medical history and physical exam, other tests may include:
Specific blood tests. Blood tests measure levels of hormones.
Urine tests. Urine tests measure levels of hormones.
Treatment may include surgical removal of growths on the adrenal gland(s), or the adrenal gland(s) itself. Medications that block the excessive production of certain hormones may also be given.
Cushing's syndrome results from hypersecretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex. One cause is overproduction of corticotropin by the pituitary gland. This stimulates the adrenal glands. In addition, certain lung cancers and other tumors outside the pituitary gland may produce corticotropin. Other causes include benign (noncancerous) or cancerous tumors on the adrenal glands. Cushing's syndrome is extremely rare in children and also rare in adults.
Each child may experience symptoms differently. Children and adolescents with Cushing's syndrome typically experience weight gain, growth retardation, and high blood pressure. Symptoms may include:
Upper body obesity
Round or moon-shaped face
Increased fat around neck
Thinning arms and legs
Fragile and thin skin
Darkened pigmentation of the skin
Stretch marks on abdomen, thighs, buttocks, arms, and breasts
Bone and muscle weakness
High blood sugar
Irritability and anxiety
Excessive hair growth in females
Irregular or stopped menstrual cycles in females
Reduced sex drive and fertility in males
The symptoms of Cushing's syndrome may look like other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.
In addition to a complete medical history and physical exam, tests for Cushing's syndrome may include:
X-ray. A diagnostic test that uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
24-hour urinary test. Urine is collected over a 24-hour period to measure for corticosteroid hormones.
Computed tomography scan (also called a CT or CAT scan). A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.
Dexamethasone suppression test. This test differentiates whether the excess production of corticotropins is from the pituitary gland or tumors elsewhere.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test. This test differentiates whether the cause is a pituitary tumor or an adrenal tumor.
Treatment for Cushing's syndrome depends on its cause. Surgery may be needed to remove tumors from the adrenal glands.