Preschool-aged children can certainly benefit from preoperative planning, education, and explanations. This preparation should take place several days before the procedure, to give your preschool child time to prepare. Recognizing what is stressful to your preschool child while in the hospital can guide you in preparing him or her for the surgical experience. Common stressors and fears in the hospital may include the following:
Fear of being away from family and home, or of being left alone
Thinking he or she is in the hospital because he or she is in trouble or being punished
Fear of having a part of the body damaged
Fear of needles and shots
Fear of waking up during surgery
Fear of pain (or the possibility of pain)
Fear of the dark
One of the major fears preschoolers have is fear of the unknown. Tell your child about the surgery several days before the procedure and perhaps even visit the hospital for a tour. Many hospitals will allow you and your child to visit before surgery. This can help your child see the sights, sounds, and events he or she will experience the day of surgery. It can help your child learn about the hospital, and it gives him or her time to talk about concerns and questions he or she may have. Contact the hospital's child life department for this service.
Tell the truth in simple terms, and answer all of your child's questions, for example, "Yes, it will hurt, but it will not last long."
Make sure your child knows why he or she is going to have surgery. It is not uncommon for this age group to have misconceptions about hospitalization. Often, children think they have done something wrong or that needles are given to kids who are "bad."
Dramatic play is a big part of a preschooler's life. Using pictures, stuffed animals, or toys to help your child understand is better than simply telling him or her what will happen. Illustrate the situation clearly for your child. Ask a child life specialist to help explain what will happen, and why, in terms your child can understand. Also discuss therapeutic play activities such as playing "hospital" with your child at home before he or she is admitted for the procedure.
Give very simple explanations, and be careful of the words that you use. For example, say, "The doctor is going to fix your arm." Do not say, "The doctor is going to make a cut on your arm." If you describe anesthesia as "being put to sleep," your preschooler may think of a family pet that died and wonder if he or she will die, too. A better way to phrase it might be: "A doctor will help you sleep (a different kind of sleep than how you sleep at night) during the operation, and he or she will wake you up after it is over."
Your child may enjoy reading books about the hospital with the family.
Allow your child to help pack his or her own suitcase. Bringing a favorite security item, pictures of family and pets, and a special toy can be very comforting.
Explain the benefits of the surgery in terms your child can understand. For example, "After the doctor fixes your arm, you can play ___."
Learn as much as you can about your child's surgery. Children can tell when their parents are worried. The more you know, the better you will feel and the more you can help explain things to your child.
Make sure to stay with your child as much as possible to provide comfort and security.
Be patient with your child. It is normal for him or her to require more attention. Your child may have temper tantrums or be uncooperative. It is not unusual for your child to return to bedwetting or thumb-sucking. The regressive behavior will usually improve after the stress of the procedure has passed.
Remember, too, to take care of yourself. Simplify your life during this time and do not be afraid to ask for help from family and friends. Remaining positive and nonstressed can help reduce your child's anxiety.
Anne Civardi and Stephen Cartwright. 1993. Going to the Hospital. EDC Publishing. (Ages 3 to 6)
Fred Rogers. 1997. Going to the Hospital. The Putnam Publishing Group. (Ages 5 to 6)
Deborah Hautzig. 1985. A Visit to the Sesame Street Hospital. Random House/Children's Television Workshop. (Ages 4 to 7)
Richard Scarry. 1995. Big Operation: The Busy World of Richard Scarry. Aladdin Paperback.
Debbie Duncan, Nina Ollikainen (Illustrator). September 1995. When Molly Was In The Hospital: A Book for Brothers and Sisters of Hospitalized Children. Rayve Productions, Incorporated. (Ages 4 to 7)
Paulette Bourgeois, Brenda Clark (Illustrator). 2000. Franklin Goes to the Hospital (volume 25). Scholastic, Inc. (Ages 5 to 7)
Virginia Dooley and Miriam Katin. 1996. Tubes in My Ears: My Trip to the Hospital. Mondo Publishing. (Ages 5 to 7)
Juliana Lee Hatkoff, Craig Hatkoff, Marilyn Mets (Illustrator). 2001. Good-Bye Tonsils!. Penguin Putnam Books for Young Readers. (Ages 4 to 8)
Norman Bridwell. 2000. Clifford Visits the Hospital. (Clifford the Big Red Dog ). Scholastic Inc. (Ages 4 to 8)
H.A. Ray. 1999. Curious George Goes to the Hospital. Rebound my Sagebrush. (Ages 4 to 8)
Barbara Taylor Cork. 2002. Katie Goes to the Hospital. Peter Bedrick; 1 edition. (Ages 4 to 8)
Joanna Cole and Bruce Degar. 1989. The Magic School Bus: Inside the Human Body. Scholastic, Incorporated. (Ages 6 to 9)
S. Jennings. 2000. Franklin Goes To The Hospital. Scholastic. (Ages 3 to 7)
B. Pace, K. Hutton. 2002. Chris Gets Ear Tubes. Kendall Green Publications. (Ages 4 to 8)