Urine albumin, 24-hour urine test for albumin
This test looks for a protein called albumin in your urine. The test is used to check for kidney damage or disease.
Albumin helps to keep the right amount of fluid moving through your body. Your kidneys filter toxins from your blood, but they allow proteins to pass through because proteins are useful to your body. Proteins should be reabsorbed in your blood and not be passed out in your urine. But if your kidneys are damaged or diseased, albumin may leak into your urine. One of the earliest signs of kidney damage is albumin in your urine.
You may have this test if your doctor suspects you have kidney disease or if you have diabetes.
You may need to repeat this test one to two weeks later so your doctor can see if your urine albumin level is rising.
Your doctor might also do tests to check for other waste products in your blood, including creatinine and urea nitrogen. If your kidneys are working the way they should, these waste products are removed from your blood.
You may have tests to measure the amount of creatinine in your urine, too. These tests help your doctor figure out your urine albumin/creatinine ratio, which helps to screen for, diagnose, and monitor treatment for kidney disorders.
You may also have a test to figure out your glomerular filtration rate. Tiny blood vessels in the kidney, known as glomeruli, keep protein from seeping into your urine. If your glomeruli are damaged, more protein will seep into your urine.
Many things may affect your lab test results. These include the method each lab uses to do the test. Even if your test results are different from the normal value, you may not have a problem. To learn what the results mean for you, talk with your health care provider.
A normal test result shows less than 30 milligrams per gram (mg/g) of albumin in your urine.
If your test shows high levels of urine albumin, or a rise in urine albumin, it could mean you have kidney damage or disease.
If you have diabetes, one possible cause of an increased urine albumin is diabetic nephropathy, or kidney disease.
This test requires a urine sample. Your doctor may want to use a 24-hour urine sample. For this type of sample, you must collect all the urine you produce for 24 hours. Empty your bladder completely first thing in the morning without collecting it and note the time. Then collect your urine every time you go to the bathroom for the next 24 hours.
This test poses no known risks.
Your test results might be affected if you:
Have a urinary tract infection
Have a fever
Have high blood pressure
Have high blood sugar
Certain drugs also can increase or decrease the amount of protein in your urine.
You don't need to prepare for this test. But be sure your doctor knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illicit drugs you may use.