TSH, thyrotropin test
This is a blood test that measures your level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Health care providers use this test to diagnose problems affecting the thyroid.
Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located near the base of your throat above your collarbones. The thyroid makes two hormones, T3 and T4, that affect your energy levels, mood, weight, and other important parts of your health.
The pituitary gland in your brain makes a chemical called TSH, which triggers your thyroid to make T3 and T4. When your pituitary gland produces too much or too little TSH, this can cause your thyroid to be overactive (hyperthyroidism) or underactive (hypothyroidism).
You may need this test if you have symptoms of thyroid problems.
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:
Weakness in the arms and legs
Low tolerance for heat
Unexplained weight loss
More frequent bowel movements than usual
Eye irritation or bulging eyes, which are symptoms of Graves' disease, a common cause of hyperthyroidism
Enlarged breasts and erectile dysfunction in men
Symptoms of hypothyroidism include:
Low tolerance for cold
Slower heart rate
Shortness of breath
Loss of consciousness, although this is rare
Health care providers may also check TSH levels when diagnosing depression and dementia.
In addition to T4, you may have other tests of thyroid-related substances, including:
Thyroglobulin, which helps produce and store thyroid hormones
TSH receptor-stimulator antibodies, which is used to diagnose Graves' disease
Thyroid antiperoxidase antibodies and thyroglobulin antibodies, which are used to diagnose a condition called Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Many things may affect your lab test results. These include the method each lab uses to do the test. Even if your test results are different from the normal value, you may not have a problem. To learn what the results mean for you, talk with your health care provider.
The normal range for TSH varies by lab, but the usual range is 2 to 11 microunits per milliliter (mU/mL).
Low TSH may mean you have hyperthyroidism, and high TSH can mean hypothyroidism. The results of other thyroid tests can help to determine the cause.
The test requires a blood sample, which is drawn through a needle from a vein in your arm.
Taking a blood sample with a needle carries risks that include bleeding, infection, bruising, or feeling dizzy. When the needle pricks your arm, you may feel a slight stinging sensation or pain. Afterward, the site may be slightly sore.
Some medications keep the pituitary gland from releasing TSH. These include:
Other drugs that can affect thyroid tests include:
Tell your doctor if you're taking medication. Certain medications can affect thyroid test results.
Be sure your doctor knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illicit drugs you may use.