Measles, also known as rubeola, is a viral illness. It's characterized by a distinct rash and a fever. Measles is very contagious. It is usually spread through direct contact with droplets from coughs or sneezes from a person with measles. Although not as common, it can be spread by droplets in the air. The symptoms of measles occur about 8 to 12 days after coming in contact with a person with the virus.
Measles usually begin with cold like symptoms. Symptoms may include:
Inflammation and redness of covering of the eye (conjunctivitis)
Tiny white spots inside the mouth (Koplik spots)
Within another few days, a red rash appears. It usually starts on the face and then spreads to the rest of the body. Once the rash appears, the fever may get muchhigher. This rash fades after 4 to 7 days as symptoms subside.
The symptoms of measles may look like other medical conditions. Always consult your health care provider for a diagnosis.
Your child's health care provider will figure out the best treatment based on:
How old your child is
His or her overall health and medical history
How sick he or she is
How well your child can handle specific medications, procedures, or therapies
How long the condition is expected to last
Your opinion or preference
Vitamin A is used to treat measles in children. It lessens the chance of serious complications and death. Other treatment includes:
Staying away from other people
Medication for fever
Antibiotic medication for bacterial infections that develop
Most people recover with no lasting effects. But measles can lead to serious complications or even death. Complications of measles include the following:
Middle ear infection
Infection of the airway and lungs (pneumonia)
Infection of the upper airway with trouble breathing and cough (croup)
Infection of the brain (encephalitis)
The measles vaccine is part of the routine immunizations recommended for children. Children should be vaccinated for measles with 2 doses:
First dose at 12 to 15 months of age
Second dose at 4 to 6 years of age
For people who have not been vaccinated, vaccination up to 3 days after exposure to measles may prevent the disease.
People who have had the measles are immune for life. However, if you work in education, or health care, or are planning international travel, you may want to be vaccinated to boost your immunity.
Call your child's health care provider right away if you suspect measles. Get emergency care if your child has:
A fever higher than 105°F (40.5°C)
A severe headache
Confusion or clumsiness