The nervous system is a complex, sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates body activities. It is made up of two major divisions:
Central nervous system - consisting of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system - consisting of all other neural elements
In addition to the brain and spinal cord, principal organs of the nervous system include the following:
Sensory organs of taste
Sensory organs of smell
Sensory receptors located in the skin, joints, muscles, and other parts of the body
The nervous system is vulnerable to various disorders. Disorders of the nervous system may involve the following:
Vascular disorders - such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage and hematoma, and extradural hemorrhage
Infections - such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and epidural abscess
Structural disorders - such as brain or spinal cord injury, Bell's palsy, cervical spondylosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, brain or spinal cord tumors, peripheral neuropathy, and Guillain-Barré syndrome
Functional disorders - such as headache, epilepsy, dizziness, and neuralgia
Degeneration - such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's chorea, and Alzheimer's disease
Because many neurologic conditions and diseases cause severe illness, only a few conditions are seen in pregnancy. The most common conditions in pregnancy include the following:
Some neurologic diseases have little or no effect on pregnancy, while others can greatly increase the risks for pregnancy complications and maternal and fetal illness. Likewise, pregnancy can affect some neurologic conditions, but not others.
Care of pregnant women with neurologic conditions often involves a team of health care providers. Women can increase their chances for a healthy pregnancy by getting early prenatal care and working with their health care providers in the management of their disease.