Immunofixation electrophoresis, IFE
This test separates and measures proteins in your urine. It looks for an abnormal protein called monoclonal protein, or M-protein.
An M-protein is a type of abnormal immunoglobulin made by plasma cells, a kind of white blood cell. Your body uses immunoglobulins to make antibodies that help attack invaders such as germs. If your body makes M-protein, it may mean that you have one of several cancers, such as multiple myeloma, or another serious health problem.
This test uses an electric current to push proteins in a urine sample through a special gel. This is the electrophoresis portion. The lab treats the gel to keep only certain proteins. This is the immunofixation portion. A stain makes different proteins show up as band, or peaks.
You might have this test if your doctor suspects that you have one of several medical problems, including multiple myeloma, primary amyloidosis, or Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia.
Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that develops when abnormal plasma cells build up in bone marrow. As a result, many bones develop tumors, and the bone marrow can't do its normal job, which is to make different blood cells. Symptoms of multiple myeloma include:
Pain in the bones
Unusual bleeding or bruising
Shortness of breath
Primary amyloidosis develops when a substance called amyloid gathers in clumps in your organs. Amyloid is made of fragments of antibody protein. When amyloid gathers in organs, such as the kidneys, lungs, heart, or brain, it can damage them. Sometimes people have both multiple myeloma and primary amyloidosis.
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which is a kind of cancer. It's caused by high levels of monoclonal immunoglobulin M, or IgM. Symptoms may include:
Fatigue and weakness
Unusual bleeding or bruises
Your doctor may recommend other tests to help determine whether you have a medical problem. These test may include:
Analysis of a sample of bone marrow
Biopsy of tissue from your body to check for signs of amyloidosis
X-rays to check your bones
Urine test to check for unusual levels of protein
Complete blood count, or CBC, that includes measuring the number of different cells in your blood
Measurement of levels of immunoglobulins in your blood
CT scans to look at your lymph nodes, spleen, and liver
Many things may affect your lab test results. These include the method each lab uses to do the test. Even if your test results are different from the normal value, you may not have a problem. To learn what the results mean for you, talk with your health care provider.
This test commonly requires a 24-hour urine sample. To do this test, you will need to collect all the urine you pass during a 24-hour period. You will collect it in a container that your doctor or the lab gives you.
This test poses no known risks.
No other factors can affect your results.
You don't need to prepare for this test. But be sure your doctor knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illicit drugs you may use.