A preparticipation exam may be required for any child who wants to take part in a school athletic activity. This may also be needed for an organized sports activity outside of school.
A preparticipation exam for your child is used to:
Find any medical or physical problems that could make participation risky
Find any medical or physical problems that could be fixed to make participation a more beneficial experience
Help maintain health and safety
Make sure your child is fit enough to participate in the activity
Teach your child about the activity
Meet all the legal and insurance requirements for participation in the activity
Preparticipation exams are usually necessary before starting an activity. They may be required again if treatment is needed before clearance is given. If your child is injured while playing the sport, he or she may need to have another exam for permission to return to play. How often your child needs to have an exam depends on the activity and the local laws governing the activity. In many cases, annual exams are required.
Preparticipation exams usually require a medical history and physical exam by a qualified medical professional like your pediatrician. In many cases, a form will need to be filled out. Sometimes, your family health care provider will be able to do the exam and fill out the form. Other times, the exam may have to be done at a particular clinic.
These are the usual parts of the exam:
Past medical history. Questions will be asked about any medical conditions like heart problems, neurological problems, asthma, allergies, and issues involving the muscles and joints. Also, you will be asked about any medications your child is taking.
Previous sports history. This part of the medical history may cover questions about any fractures, sprains, and dislocations your child has experienced. These can include any surgeries, dental trauma, concussions, breathing problems, or restrictions from participation for any reason in the past.
Family history. Questions will cover any family history of heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes. It's important to mention any unexplained sudden death in a family member younger than age 50.
Physical exam screening. This may include checking your child's pulse, blood pressure, weight, and height, and doing vision and hearing testing.
Physical exam proper. This part of the physical usually includes checking the head and neck, listening to the heart and lungs, and doing a neurological check. It also includes examining the abdomen, the arms, legs, and possibly the genital area.
Diagnostic tests. Blood tests, X-rays, and cardiograms are rarely included in a preparticipation exam unless findings in the other parts of the exam suggest a possible problem.
Girls usually receive the same type of preparticipation exam as boys. They may be asked if they have any problems related to menstrual periods. They may also be asked about their feelings concerning their weight and appearance. This is to check for an eating disorder. Girls may also be advised about an increased risk for stress fractures and knee injuries.
After the results of the preparticipation exam are analyzed, your child will likely get one of the following recommendations:
Partial or restricted participation
Re-evaluation after treatment
Referral for further testing
No participation in the activity
A preparticipation exam is a good way to make sure your child can safely enjoy an organized physical activity. It is also a chance to learn about the activity and the possible risks of participation.