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Exposure to abnormal or prolonged amounts of heat and humidity without relief or adequate fluid intake can cause various types of heat-related illness. Children and adolescents adjust more slowly than adults do to changes in environmental heat. They also produce more heat with activity than adults, and sweat less. Sweating is one of the body's normal cooling mechanisms. Children and adolescents often do not think to rest when having fun and may not drink enough fluids when playing, exercising, or participating in sports.
Children and adolescents with chronic health problems, or those who take certain medicines, may be more susceptible to heat-related illnesses. Children and adolescents who are overweight or wear heavy clothing during exertion, such as marching band or football uniforms, are also more susceptible.
There are three types of heat-related illnesses:
Heat cramps are the mildest form of heat injury and consist of painful muscle cramps and spasms that occur during or after intense exercise and sweating in high heat.
Heat exhaustion is more severe than heat cramps and results from a loss of water and salt in the body. It occurs in conditions of extreme heat and excessive sweating without adequate fluid and salt replacement. Heat exhaustion occurs when the body is unable to cool itself properly and, if left untreated, can progress to heat stroke.
Heat stroke, the most severe form of heat illness, occurs when the body's heat-regulating system is overwhelmed by excessive heat. It is a life-threatening emergency and requires immediate medical attention.
The following chart contains the most common symptoms of heat-related injuries. However, each adolescent may experience symptoms differently. In addition specific treatment will be determined by your adolescent's doctor and may include some, or more, of the following:
First-aid and treatment
Painful cramps, especially in the legs
Flushed, moist skin
Move to a cool place and rest.
Remove excess clothing and place cool cloths on skin; fan skin.
Give cool sports drinks containing salt and sugar, such as Gatorade.
Stretch cramped muscles slowly and gently.
Pale, moist skin
Usually has a fever over 100.4° F (or 34° C)
Anxiety, and faint feeling
If no improvement or unable to take fluids, call your adolescent's doctor or take your child to an emergency department immediately. IV (intravenous) fluids may be needed.
Warm, dry skin
high fever, usually over 104° F (or 40° C)
Rapid heart rate
Loss of appetite
Seizures, coma, and death are possible
Call 911 or your local emergency medical service. Heat stroke is a life-threatening medical emergency and needs to be treated by a doctor.
Remove excess clothing and drench skin with cool water; fan skin.
Place ice bags on the armpits and groin areas.
Offer cool fluids if alert and able to drink.
Some general guidelines to help protect your adolescent from heat-related illnesses include the following:
Drink plenty of fluids during vigorous or outdoor activities (including sunbathing), especially on hot days. Drinks of choice include water and sports drinks; avoid alcohol and fluids with caffeine, such as tea, coffee, and cola, as these can lead to dehydration.
Make sure your adolescent dresses in light colored, lightweight, tightly-woven, loose-fitting clothing on hot days.
Schedule vigorous activity and sports for cooler times of the day. Take rest periods in shady or cool areas.
Makes sure your adolescent is protected from the sun and wears a hat and sunglasses, and uses an umbrella. Use a sunscreen that is at least SPF (sun protection factor) 15.
Increase time spent outdoors gradually to get your adolescent's body used to the heat.
Teach adolescents to take frequent drink breaks and "wet down" or mist themselves with a spray bottle to avoid becoming overheated.
Try to spend as much time indoors as possible on very hot and humid days.
Teach your adolescent to warm-up and cool-down before and after exercising.
If your adolescent has a medical condition or is taking medication, consult your adolescent's doctor for further advice for preventing heat-related illnesses.
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