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Glomerulonephritis is a type of kidney disease that involves the glomeruli. These are very small, important structures in the kidneys that supply blood flow to the small units in the kidneys that filter urine called the nephrons. During glomerulonephritis, the glomeruli become inflamed and impair the kidney's ability to filter urine.
Glomerulonephritis is caused by several different disease states, including the following:
Systemic immune disease, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus)
Other systemic diseases may include:
Polyarteritis nodosa group. An inflammatory disease of the arteries.
Wegener vasculitis. A progressive disease that leads to widespread inflammation of all of the organs in the body.
Henoch-Schönlein purpura. A disease usually seen in children that is associated with purpura (small or large purple lesions on the skin and internally on the organs) and involves multiple organ systems.
A form of inherited glomerulonephritis called Alport syndrome, which affects both men and women; men are more likely to have kidney problems. Treatment focuses on preventing and treating high blood pressure and preventing kidney damage.
In children, a common cause of glomerulonephritis is from a streptococcal infection, such as strep throat or upper respiratory infection. Glomerulonephritis usually occurs more than one week after an infection. This is often referred to as acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis or APSGN.
The following are the most common symptoms of glomerulonephritis:
Dark brown-colored urine (from blood and protein)
Diminished urine output
Increased breathing effort
High blood pressure
Seizures (may occur as a result of high blood pressure)
Rash, especially over the buttocks and legs
Pale skin color
Fluid build up in the tissues (edema)
The symptoms of glomerulonephritis may look like other conditions and medical problems. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.
In addition to a thorough physical exam and complete medical history, your child's doctor may recommend the following tests:
Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). A test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmias or dysrhythmias), and detects heart muscle damage.
Renal ultrasound (also called sonography). A noninvasive test in which a transducer is passed over the kidney producing sound waves which bounce off of the kidney, transmitting a picture of the organ on a video screen. The test is used to determine the size and shape of the kidney and to detect a mass, kidney stone, cyst, or other obstruction or abnormalities.
Chest X-ray. A diagnostic test that uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
Renal biopsy. A procedure during which a small sample of tissue is taken from the kidney through a needle. The tissue is sent for special testing to determine the specific disease.
Your child’s health care provider will figure out the best treatment based on:
How old your child is
His or her overall health and medical history
How sick he or she is
How well your child can handle specific medications, procedures, or therapies
How long the condition is expected to last
Your opinion or preference
If glomerulonephritis is caused by a streptococcal infection, then treatment will be focused on curing the infection and treating the symptoms associated with the infection. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause. Therefore, treatments focus on slowing the progression of the disease and preventing complications.
Treatment for glomerulonephritis may include:
Decreased protein diet
Decreased salt and potassium diet
Medication, such as:
Blood pressure medications
Phosphate binders. Medications to decrease the amount of the mineral phosphorus in the blood.
Dialysis. A medical treatment to remove wastes and additional fluid from the blood after the kidneys have stopped functioning. Dialysis may be required for short-term or long-term therapy.
If glomerulonephritis does not resolve, long-term kidney failure may need to be addressed.
Bayhealth is Southern Delaware’s healthcare leader with hospitals in Dover and in Milford. Bayhealth provides a wide range of medical services, including cardiovascular, cancer, orthopaedics and rehabilitation, pediatrics, respiratory care, sleep care, surgical weight loss and women’s services.