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Pyloric stenosis is a problem that causes forceful vomiting. It affects babies from birth to 6 months of age. It can lead to dehydration. This condition is the second most common reason why newborns have surgery.
The pylorus is the lower part of the stomach that connects to the small intestine. In pyloric stenosis, the muscles in that part of the stomach enlarge. This causes the opening of the pylorus to get narrow. This stops food from moving from the stomach to the intestine.
Pyloric stenosis is a birth defect. This means that your child is born with it.
This condition may run in some families. It’s a multifactorial trait. This means that many things caused it. The factors are often both genetic and environmental.
Pyloric stenosis is 4 times more common in males than females.
A child is more likely to have this condition if the child:
What are the symptoms of pyloric stenosis?
The most common symptom is forceful, projectile vomiting. This kind of vomiting is different from spit-up or a wet burp. Large amounts of breastmilk or formula are vomited. It may go several feet across a room.
Your baby’s vomit may look curdled. This is because the milk stays in the stomach and doesn’t move to the small intestine. The stomach acid curdles it.
Other symptoms may include:
A baby with pyloric stenosis is often very hungry and wants to eat.
The symptoms of this condition may be similar to symptoms of other health problems. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
Your child’s healthcare provider will check his or her health history. He or she will also give your child an exam. Your child may need tests to diagnose pyloric stenosis.
These tests check if your child is dehydrated or has mineral imbalances.
This test shows images of your child’s internal tissues, bones, and organs.
This test shows images of your child’s internal organs and blood flow through various vessels.
An upper GI series looks at the organs in the upper part of your child’s digestive system. These include the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine. For this test, your child will swallow barium. This is a metallic liquid that coats the inside of his or her organs. This helps them show up on an X-ray. Then your child’s healthcare provider will take an X-ray of these organs.
Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.
Children with this condition must have surgery. But your child’s dehydration and mineral imbalances may need to be treated first. Water and minerals can be replaced through intravenous (IV) fluid.
Once your baby is no longer dehydrated, he or she will have surgery. Your child will need anesthesia. His or her surgeon will make a small cut (incision) above your baby’s navel. Then the surgeon will fix the pyloric muscle.
Your baby will stay in the hospital for 2 to 3 days. Most babies get better quickly after surgery. Your baby will likely only be able to drink clear liquids such as an electrolyte drink at first. Babies can often start drinking small amounts of clear liquids in the first 24 hours.
Babies may still vomit for several days after surgery. This is because of swelling of the surgical site of the pyloric muscle. The swelling often goes away within a few days.
Most babies will be able to have normal feedings by the time they leave the hospital.
This condition can cause dehydration. When babies vomit often, they don’t get enough fluids to meet their nutritional needs. Minerals that the body needs are also lost through vomit. These include potassium and sodium. Babies who are dehydrated and don’t have enough minerals can get sick very quickly.
Pyloric stenosis can also cause weight loss. A baby who vomits most of or all of his or her feedings won’t gain enough weight to stay healthy.
Babies who have surgery for this condition often have no long-term problems. Pyloric stenosis usually doesn’t reoccur.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
Bayhealth is Southern Delaware’s healthcare leader with hospitals in Dover and in Milford. Bayhealth provides a wide range of medical services, including cardiovascular, cancer, orthopaedics and rehabilitation, pediatrics, respiratory care, sleep care, surgical weight loss and women’s services.