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A liver transplant is surgery to replace a diseased liver with a healthy liver from another person. A whole liver may be transplanted, or just part of one.
In most cases the healthy liver will come from an organ donor who has just died.
Sometimes a healthy living person will donate part of their liver. A living donor may be a family member. Or it may be someone who is not related to you but whose blood type is a good match.
People who donate part of their liver can have healthy lives with the liver that is left.
The liver is the only organ in the body that can replace lost or injured tissue (regenerate). The donor’s liver will soon grow back to normal size after surgery. The part that you receive as a new liver will also grow to normal size in a few weeks.
You can’t live without a working liver. If your liver stops working properly, you may need a transplant.
A liver transplant may be recommended if you have end-stage liver disease (chronic liver failure). This is a serious, life-threatening liver disease. It can be caused by several liver conditions.
Cirrhosis is a common cause of end-stage liver disease. It is a chronic liver disease. It happens when healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue. This stops the liver from working properly.
Other diseases that may lead to end-stage liver disease include:
If your provider thinks you may be a good candidate for a liver transplant, he or she will refer you to a transplant center for evaluation. Transplant centers are located in certain hospitals throughout the U.S.
You will have a variety of tests done by the transplant center team. They will decide whether to place your name on a national transplant waiting list. The transplant center team will include:
The transplant evaluation process includes:
The transplant center team will review all of your information. Each transplant center has rules about who can have a liver transplant.
You may not be able to have a transplant if you:
If you are accepted as a transplant candidate, your name will be placed on a national transplant waiting list. People who most urgently need a new liver are put at the top of the list. Many people have to wait a long time for a new liver.
You will be notified when an organ is available because a donor has died. You will have to go to the hospital right away to get ready for surgery.
If a living person is donating a part of their liver to you, the surgery will be planned in advance. You and your donor will have surgery at the same time. The donor must be in good health and have a blood type that is a good match with yours. The donor will also take a psychological test. This is to be sure he or she is comfortable with this decision.
Some complications from liver surgery may include:
Your new liver may also be rejected by your body’s disease-fighting system (immune system). Rejection is the body’s normal reaction to a foreign object or tissue. When a new liver is transplanted into your body, your immune system thinks it is a threat and attacks it.
To help the new liver survive in your body, you must take anti-rejection medicines (immunosuppressive medicines). These medicines weaken your immune system’s response. You must take these medicines for the rest of your life.
Your healthcare provider may have other instructions for you based on your medical condition.
Liver transplant surgery requires a hospital stay. Procedures may vary depending on your condition and your provider’s practices.
Generally, a liver transplant follows this process:
After the surgery you may be taken to the recovery room for a few hours before being taken to the intensive care unit (ICU). You will be closely watched in the ICU for several days.
You will be hooked up to monitors. They will show your heartbeat, blood pressure, other pressure readings, breathing rate, and your oxygen level. You will need to stay in the hospital for 1 to 2 weeks or longer.
You will most likely have a tube in your throat. This is so you can breathe with the help of a machine (a ventilator) until you can breathe on your own. You may need the breathing tube for a few hours or a few days, depending on your situation.
You may have a thin plastic tube inserted through your nose into your stomach to remove air that you swallow. The tube will be taken out when your bowels start working normally again. You won’t be able to eat or drink until the tube is removed.
Blood samples will be taken often to check your new liver. They will also check that your kidneys, lungs, and circulatory system are all working.
You may have IV drips to help your blood pressure and your heart, and to control any problems with bleeding. As your condition gets better, these drips will be slowly decreased and turned off.
Once the breathing and stomach tubes have been removed and you are stable, you may start to drink liquids. You may slowly begin to eat solid foods as directed.
Your anti-rejection medicines will be closely watched to be sure you are getting the right dose and the right mix of medicines.
When your provider feels you are ready, you will be moved from the ICU to a private room. You will slowly be able to move about more as you get out of bed and walk around for longer periods of time. You will slowly be able to eat more solid foods.
Your transplant team will teach you how to take care of yourself when you go home.
Once you are home, you must keep the surgical area clean and dry. Your provider will give you specific bathing instructions. Any stitches or surgical staples will be removed at a follow-up office visit, if they were not removed before leaving the hospital.
You should not drive until your provider tells you to. You may have other limits on your activity.
Call your healthcare provider if you have any of the following:
Your healthcare provider may give you other instructions, depending on your situation.
You must take medicines for the rest of your life to help the transplanted liver survive in your body. These medicines are called anti-rejection medicines (immunosuppressive medicines). They weaken your immune system’s response.
Each person may react differently to medicines, and each transplant team has preferences for different medicines.
New anti-rejection medicines are always being made and approved. Your provider will create a medicine treatment plan that is right for you. In most cases you will take a few anti-rejection medicines at first. The doses may change often, depending on how you respond to them.
Because anti-rejection medicines affect the immune system, people who have a transplant are at a higher risk for infections. Some of the infections you will be at greater risk for include:
For the first few months after your surgery, you should avoid contact with crowds or anyone who has an infection.
Each person may have different symptoms of rejection. Some common symptoms of rejection include:
Before you agree to the test or the procedure make sure you know:
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