Anemia is a common blood disorder that occurs when there are fewer red blood cells than normal, or there is a low concentration of hemoglobin in the blood.
Hemoglobin. The iron-containing protein inside the red blood cell that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues in the body.
Hematocrit. The percentage of a volume of blood that is made up by the red blood cells.
Anemia is often a symptom of a disease rather than a disease itself. Anemia usually develops due to the presence of one of the following:
Excessive blood loss or hemorrhaging
Deficient production of red cells
Excessive red cell destruction
Both decreased production and excessive destruction of red blood cells
Most symptoms of anemia are a result of the decreased amount of oxygen getting to the cells and tissues of the body, or hypoxia. Because the hemoglobin in red blood cells carries oxygen, a decreased production or number of these cells result in hypoxia. Many of the symptoms will not be present with mild anemia, as the body can often compensate for gradual changes in hemoglobin.
The following are the most common symptoms of anemia. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. The symptoms may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Abnormal paleness or lack of color of the skin
Increased heart rate (tachycardia)
Breathlessness, or difficulty catching a breath (dyspnea)
Lack of energy, or tiring easily (fatigue)
Dizziness or faintness, especially when standing
Irregular menstruation cycles
Absent or delayed menstruation (amenorrhea)
Sore or swollen tongue (glossitis)
Jaundice, or yellowing of skin, eyes, and mouth
Enlarged spleen or liver (splenomegaly, hepatomegaly)
Impaired wound and tissue healing
The symptoms of anemia may resemble other blood disorders or medical problems. Because anemia is often a symptom associated with another disease, it is important for your doctor to be aware of symptoms you may be experiencing. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.
Generally, anemia may be caused by several problems, including the following:
There are several different types of anemia, each with a specific cause and treatment, including the following:
Megaloblastic (pernicious or vitamin B12 deficiency) anemia
Anemia of folate deficiency
Sickle cell anemia
Cooley's anemia (beta thalassemia)
Kidney failure associated anemia
Anemia may be suspected from general findings on a complete medical history and physical examination, such as complaints of tiring easily, pale skin and lips, or a fast heartbeat (tachycardia). Anemia is usually discovered during a medical examination through blood tests that measure the concentration of hemoglobin and the number of red blood cells.
In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for anemia may include:
Additional blood tests
Bone marrow aspiration and/or biopsy. A procedure that involves taking a small amount of bone marrow fluid (aspiration) and/or solid bone marrow tissue (called a core biopsy), usually from the hip bones, to be examined for the number, size, and maturity of blood cells and/or abnormal cells.
Specific treatment for anemia will be determined by your doctor based on:
Your age, overall health, and medical history
Extent of the disease
Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
Expectations for the course of the disease
Your opinion or preference
Treatment may include:
Treatment of the causative disease
Vitamin and mineral supplements
Change in diet
Bone marrow transplant
Surgery (to remove the spleen, if related to hemolytic anemia)
Antibiotics (if an infection is the causative agent)