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Pediatric Health Library
Adolescence is a transition period between childhood and adulthood. It is a stressful developmental period filled with major changes in physical maturity and sexuality, cognitive processes (ways of thinking and thought content), emotional feelings, and relationships with others.
Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Allergy and asthma are among the most common heath problems, with more than 50 million people afflicted with asthma, seasonal hay fever, or other allergy-related conditions each year.
According to the National SAFE KIDS Campaign, accidental injuries are a leading cause of death among children ages 14 and younger. And, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), burns and fires are the fifth most common cause of accidental death in children and adults, and account for an estimated 4,000 adult and child deaths per year. The key to reducing childhood burn injuries is prevention.
Most people only think of middle-aged adults or the elderly as being affected by heart disease. Children are usually thought of as having healthy hearts. Nine out of every 1,000 babies born in the US are born with a congenital heart abnormality
Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Many children and adolescents have mental health problems that interfere with their normal development and daily life activities. Some mental health problems are mild, while others are more severe. Some mental health problems last for only short periods of time, while others, potentially, last a lifetime.
Care of the Terminally Ill Child
A terminally ill child is a child that has no expectation of cure from his or her disease or illness, but requires as much care and comfort as can be provided. Knowing what a dying child understands about his or her condition, as well as fears, feelings, emotions, and physical changes that occur, may help family manage the final process better.
Common Childhood Injuries and Poisonings
There are probably few things more important to you than your child's health and well-being. But even though you may try your best to keep your child healthy and safe, it is not always easy to know exactly what to do, especially when your child is injured.
he word craniofacial is derived from the word cranio, referring to the skull or cranium, and facial, referring to the face. Anomaly is a medical term meaning "irregularity" or "different from normal." Craniofacial anomalies (CFA) are a group of deformities involving the growth of the head and facial bones. These anomalies are congenital (present at birth) and vary in type and severity.
Dental and Oral Health
About one-fourth of children ages 2 to 5 and one-half of adolescents ages 12 to 15 have tooth decay. In adults, an estimated 4 percent to 12 percent are affected by advanced gum disease.
The skin is the largest organ of the body, covering the entire body. As the outer protective covering of the body, it is exposed to the environment, making it vulnerable to growths, rashes, discoloration, cysts, burns, injuries, infections, and other disorders.
Ear, Nose, and Throat
Children have many problems with their ears, nose, and throat. In fact, more than 80 percent of children will experience an ear infection by age three. Often, these problems can be cared for by your child's physician.
Diabetes and Other Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders
The endocrine system is a complex collection of hormone-producing glands that control basic body functions such as metabolism, growth, and sexual development. Many of the hormones produced by the endocrine glands interact with each other to maintain balance. The amount of hormones produced by each gland is carefully balanced.
Digestive and Liver Disorders
Digestive disorders affecting infants and children range from simple problems that most children experience, such as vomiting or diarrhea, to more serious problems such as the birth defect tracheoesophageal fistula or illnesses such as appendicitis.
According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology, early detection and treatment of many sight-threatening diseases may prevent visual loss.
Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders
Urology is a surgical specialty concerned with normal and abnormal problems of the kidney, renal, pelvis, ureter, bladder, urethra, penis, and vagina in both genders. Urogenital or genitourinary (GU) are words that refer to the urinary and genital organs.
Growth and Development
Understanding your child's changing and emerging growth and development is an important part of parenting. As infants and children progress through a series of growth stages, they may encounter physical and emotional challenges and some relatively common problems during these years.
Hematology and Blood Disorders
Blood is the life-maintaining fluid that circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. It carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.
Every family looks forward to the birth of a healthy newborn. It is an exciting time with so much to enjoy. In some cases, though, unexpected difficulties and challenges occur along the way. Some newborns are considered high risk. This means that a newborn has a greater chance of complications because of conditions that occur during fetal development, pregnancy conditions of the mother, or problems that may occur during labor and birth.
Every family looks forward to a healthy pregnancy and to the birth of a healthy newborn. And, for the vast majority of women, pregnancy follows a fairly routine course. But, for some, there may be unexpected difficulties and challenges along the way with a high-risk pregnancy. Having a high-risk pregnancy means that a woman has a greater chance of complications because of conditions in her pregnancy, her own medical status or lifestyle, or due to external factors.
Fighting infectious diseases today is much easier than in the past. With proper hygiene and proper precautions, in addition to numerous vaccines and rapidly advancing medical technology, people are better equipped than ever to avoid getting sick.
The nervous system is a complex, sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates the body's basic functions and activities. It is made up of two major divisions, including the central nervous system (consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (consisting of all other neural elements). The central nervous system controls thought, behavior, and movement. The peripheral nervous system relays information to the central nervous system for transmitting messages to muscles and glands
Medical genetics is the branch of medicine concerned with how hereditary and genetic factors play a role in causing a disease, birth defect, or inherited susceptibility to a health problem.
Today, babies have more opportunities than ever before to grow into healthy children, adolescents, and adults. Each year in the US, more than 4 million babies are born.
Oncology, the study of cancer and tumors, has made significant progress in the prevention, treatment, and prognosis of many childhood cancers. Despite this progress, cancer is the chief cause of death by disease in children under age 15, and the fourth leading cause of death in children ages one to 19.
Pregnancy and Childbirth
Pediatric Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases
Arthritis and other rheumatic diseases are characterized by pain, swelling, and limited movement in joints and connective tissues in the body. An estimated 46 million people in the US suffer from arthritis in one form or another, according to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.
Orthopedics is the branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis, care, and treatment of diseases, disorders, injuries, and other conditions of the musculoskeletal system in patients. The musculoskeletal system consists of the body's bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, skin, and nerves.
Safety and Injury Prevention
Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death among children ages 14 and under, according to the National SAFE KIDS campaign. Although this death rate has declined over the years, children remain at risk for unintentional injury-related death and disability. Unfortunately, one in every four children each year suffers injuries that are serious enough to require medical attention.
Respiratory illnesses can include a variety of problems, including colds, flu, runny noses, coughs, and sore throats. Some children may also have chronic illnesses that affect the breathing system, including asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF).
The Child Having Surgery
Surgery, as defined by the American Medical Association, is the treatment of disease, injury, or other disorders by direct physical intervention, usually with instruments.
The first successful adult human kidney transplant was performed in 1954. Over the past 50 years, many successful organ transplants have occurred. Transplants now involve every major organ. Transplantation of various organs, tissues, and cells (such as kidneys, hearts, lungs, livers, bone marrow, and others) are now possible in children. Survival is steadily increasing and successful transplants now lead to an improved quality of life.
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