This test looks for minuscule amounts of albumin in your urine. The test can find out whether diabetes has damaged your kidneys.
Albumin is a protein necessary for tissue growth and healing. It can leak into your urine when your kidneys aren't working properly.
Because such small amounts of albumin may not show up during routine urine testing, doctors use this test to look for changes in albumin levels that mean complications from diabetes or other conditions. If kidney disease is caught early, it may be treated successfully.
According to the CDC, diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure in the U.S.
The National Kidney Foundation recommends that people with diabetes who are between 12 and 70 years old have a urine test for microalbumin at least once a year. According to the American Diabetes Association, everyone with type 1 diabetes should begin testing after five years of having the disease. Those with type 2 diabetes should be tested when they are diagnosed and then each year after that.
If you have high blood pressure, talk to your doctor about how frequently you should be tested.
You may have this test if you have diabetes and your doctor wants to see whether you are controlling your blood sugar well enough to prevent damage to your kidneys. You may need to have this test once a year.
Your doctor may also order a urine test for creatinine, a chemical waste product created from the body's natural process of converting food into energy. The amount of albumin is measured against the amount of creatinine to find out the albumin-to-creatinine ratio, or ACR. If your kidneys are affected, your creatinine levels will rise.
Many things may affect your lab test results. These include the method each lab uses to do the test. Even if your test results are different from the normal value, you may not have a problem. To learn what the results mean for you, talk with your health care provider.
Results for microalbumin are given in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Results for ACR are given in milligrams per gram (mg/g). Normal results are:
MA: 0.2 to 1.9 mg/dL
MA/creatinine ratio: 0 to 30 mg/g
If your results show a small amount of albumin, you may have to repeat the test using a 24-hour urine sample to confirm the results. A moderate amount of albumin could mean early stages of kidney disease, and it's likely your doctor will need to adjust your treatment.
Finding microalbumin in your urine also may mean you are at a higher risk for heart disease.
Higher levels of microalbumin may also be caused by blood in your urine, a urinary tract infection, and an acid-base imbalance in your blood.
This test requires a urine sample. Your health care provider will give you a sterile container to collect a urine sample. You may have to give a urine sample at a specific time.
This test may also use a 24-hour urine sample. For this type of sample, you must collect all the urine you produce for 24 hours. Empty your bladder completely first thing in the morning without collecting it and note the time. Then collect your urine every time you go to the bathroom for the next 24 hours.
This test poses no known risks.
Vigorous exercise can cause your results to seem higher than they really are. Certain medications, such as oxytetracycline, can also affect your results.
You don't need to prepare for this test. But be sure your doctor knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illicit drugs you may use.