A pathologist is a medical doctor who examines bodies and body tissues, and who is responsible for performing lab tests. A pathologist helps other health care providers reach diagnoses and is an important member of the treatment team.
Pathologists have completed medical school and must have at least 3 years of advanced medical education in a residency training program to be eligible to take board certification examinations. Pathologists are board-certified through the American Board of Pathology.
Most pathologists receive training in both clinical and anatomical pathology. Pathologists may practice in all areas of pathology, but the American Board of Pathology also provides subspecialty certifications in the following areas:
Blood banking/transfusion. This field includes monitoring, processing, and compatibility of blood products.
Chemical pathology. This is the study of organic and inorganic substances in body fluids, including toxicology.
Clinical informatics. This is the study of informational systems, databases, and quality control and assurances.
Cytopathology. This field includes cellular alterations in disease. Cytopathology is often used to diagnose cancer.
Dermatopathology. This is a subspecialty of both pathology and dermatology. These pathologists specialize in interpreting skin biopsies. Dermatopathological results can help diagnose common skin diseases, as well as complex immunological diseases.
Forensic pathology. These pathologists study tissue in people who died suddenly, unexpectedly, or violently.
Hematology. This is the study of disease, illness, and dysfunction of the blood.
Medical microbiology. This is the study of infectious organisms and antibiotic susceptibilities.
Molecular genetic pathology. This is the study of genetic markers and testing.
Neuropathology. This is the study of the nervous system. Neuropathology can help diagnose neurological diseases.
Pediatric pathology. This is the study of pathology in children.
Pathologists practice in community, university, and government hospitals and clinics, as well as in independent laboratories, private offices, and other medical facilities. Pathologists recertify every 10 years through the American Board of Pathology.