Blood sugar, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), random plasma glucose
A blood glucose test is a blood test that tells you if your level of glucose, or blood sugar, is within a healthy range. Fasting plasma glucose, or FPG, is a common test used to diagnose and monitor diabetes or prediabetes.
A health care provider may recommend a blood glucose test if you have symptoms of diabetes. These include increased thirst, unexplained weight loss, increased urination, tiredness, blurred vision, and sores that don't heal. Sometimes people with prediabetes or diabetes don't have any symptoms.
If you are overweight, obese, or have other risk factors for diabetes like high blood sugar, your health care provider may recommend this test. Other risk factors for diabetes include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, physical inactivity, and a family history of diabetes. People ages 45 and older who don't have any of these risk factors should also consider getting checked for diabetes at least every three years as long as their results are normal.
If you are pregnant and have a risk of developing gestational diabetes, you may be screened frequently during and for about 12 weeks after your pregnancy.
Other tests that are used to diagnose diabetes or monitor blood glucose include an A1C blood test. A variation on the blood glucose test that is also sometimes used is called an oral glucose tolerance test, or OGTT. Because heart health is so closely tied to diabetes, regular checks of blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides are important, too.
A result for a lab test may be affected by many things, including the method the laboratory uses to do the test. If your test results are different from the normal value, you may not have a problem. To learn what the results mean for you, talk with your health care provider.
Target blood glucose ranges vary from person to person. The American Diabetes Association's target blood glucose reading for a adult who's not pregnant is between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) before a meal. After a meal, it should be less than 180 mg/dL. Levels that are lower or higher than these may be a sign of blood sugar control problems.
For the FPG test, a level of 99 or below is normal. A level of 100 to 125 means you may have prediabetes. A level of 126 or above means you may have diabetes and need to do the test again on a different day to be sure.
The test requires a blood sample, which is drawn through a needle from a vein in your arm. Your blood glucose level will be checked with this sample.
At some health care provider offices and when you are self-monitoring blood glucose at home, you will use a lancing device to prick your finger. Then you will collect a drop of blood on a test strip. A machine will test the drop of blood and show your blood glucose level on the meter's display panel.
Taking a blood sample with a needle carries risks that include bleeding, infection, bruising, or feeling dizzy. When the needle pricks your arm, you may feel a slight stinging sensation or pain. Afterward, the site may be slightly sore.
A number of factors, primarily diet, can affect blood glucose levels. Follow your health care provider's instructions about when to check your blood glucose and what to do before and after checking it.
When your blood is drawn in an office, you typically need to fast – eat and drink nothing but water – for eight hours before the test. When monitoring your blood glucose levels at home, you will often be asked to check it at different times, including before and after meals. Carefully follow your health care provider's instructions for checking blood glucose levels at home.